Ticker Symbol

A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once widely used by stock exchanges.

The allocation of symbols and formatting conventions is specific to each stock exchange. In the USA, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible in Europe usually 3 letters. In Asia, numbers are often used instead, to avoid problems for international investors. For example, the bank HSBC’s stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005.

Stock Symbols are not the only possibility to identify Stock market products.

CUSIP numbers

CUSIP numbers uniquely identify securities, including stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments, that are traded in the United States and Canada. The CUSIP system was created in the 1960s to help standardize the identification of securities for clearing and settlement purposes, as the growing volume of securities being traded on exchanges was creating a need for a more efficient and reliable way to identify and track them.

The CUSIP number is a nine-character alphanumeric code that is assigned to each security, and contains information about the issuer, the type of security, and other details such as maturity date or coupon rate. This information is used by financial institutions, regulators, and investors to identify and track securities in the course of trading and settlement.

CUSIP numbers have become an important tool for the financial industry, as they help to ensure the accuracy and efficiency of trading and settlement processes. They are widely used by financial institutions to track and manage securities in their portfolios, and by regulators to monitor the trading of securities for compliance purposes. They are also used by individual investors to research and analyze securities, and to place orders with their brokers.


While the CUSIP is used to identify securities, primarily in the United States and Canada An International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) was designed to identify securities globally.

ISIN is a 12-character alphanumeric code that is assigned to each individual security, and it provides a standardized way of identifying securities in order to facilitate global trading and settlement.

  • The first two characters of an ISIN code represent the country of issuance. For example, “US” represents the United States, “CA” represents Canada, “JP” represents Japan, and so on.
  • The third character in the ISIN is typically reserved for the issuer of the security, while the remaining nine characters are used to identify the specific security.
  • The ninth character of the code is a check digit that is used to validate the code and prevent errors in processing. The check digit is calculated using a Luhn algorithm (simple checksum algorithm) that takes into account the other 11 characters of the code.

ISIN codes are used by investors, financial institutions, and regulators to identify securities and track their ownership and trading activity. They are also used to facilitate cross-border trading and settlement of securities, and to improve transparency and efficiency in global financial markets.

ISIN codes are issued by National Numbering Agencies (NNAs) in each country or region. These NNAs are responsible for assigning ISIN codes to securities that are issued in their respective jurisdictions. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) sets the global standards for ISIN codes and ensures that they are consistent across different countries and regions.

Examples of Stock symbols CUSIP and ISIN

Company Name Symbol CUSIP ISIN
Apple Inc. AAPL 037833100 US0378331005
Amazon.com Inc. AMZN 023135106 US0231351067
Microsoft Corporation MSFT 594918104 US5949181045
Alphabet Inc. GOOGL 02079K305 US02079K3059
Facebook Inc. FB 30303M102 US30303M1027
Tesla Inc. TSLA 88160R101 US88160R1014
JPMorgan Chase & Co. JPM 46625H100 US46625H1005
Johnson & Johnson JNJ 478160104 US4781601046
Procter & Gamble Co. PG 742718109 US7427181091
Visa Inc. V 92826C839 US92826C8394